April 30, 1975
Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)
Yes, described in/inferred from report
Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)
Yes, stated or used terms in statute
Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)
No, as described in/inferred from report
Article 51 Report to UN
Not applicable because no self-defense claim
Details: "emergency final evacuation out of consideration for the safety of U.S. citizens" in Saigon
Domestic Legal AuthorityConstitution (Art. II)
Details: "The operation was ordered and conducted pursuant to the President's Constitutional executive power and authority as Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Armed Forces."
Claimed International Legal BasisUnknown
Details: "...about 1:00 A.M. EDT, April 29, 1975, U.S. forces entered South Vietnam airspace... The last elements of the ground security force departed Saigon at 7:46 P.M. EDT April 29, 1975."
Type of Enemy or MissionNation-state
Details: North Vietnam
Military ActivityAir operations Use of ground forces
Details: "A force of 70 evacuation helicopters with 865 Marines evacuated about 1400 U.S. citizens, together with approximately 5500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese... U.S. fighter aircraft provided protective cover... and in one instance suppressed North Vietnamese anti-aircraft artillery firing upon evacuation helicopters... The ground security forces on occasion returned fire during the course of the evacuation operation."
US Casualties Reported
Details: "Two crew members of a Navy search and rescue helicopter are missing at sea. There are no other known U.S. casualties from this operation..."
Non-US Casualties Reported