Report 19891202A


December 02, 1989


George H.W. Bush



Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Details: Philippines forces

Article 51 Report to UN

Not applicable because no self-defense claim



Details: Assist Philippines at government request in response to coup attemp by rebel forces

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "This measured action by U.S. Forces was taken... pursuant to my constitutional authority with respect to the conduct of foreign relations and as Commander in Chief."

Claimed International Legal Basis

Consent of territorial state

Details: "President Aquino formally requested limited U.S. military assistance to support her forces as they attempted to put down the coup."

Estimated Scope/Duration

Mission-bound but indeterminate

Details: "At present, I do not foresee the need for U.S. military action in addition to the measures described above. I am prepared, however, to take additional actions to protect the lives of Americans, should they be threatened, and, if requested, to provide further assistance to the Government of the Philippines."

Type of Enemy or Mission

Non-state actor Embassy protection

Details: Rebel forces under the leadership of Lieutenant Colonel Gregorio Honasan

Military Activity

Air operations Use of ground forces

Details: Ordered "armed U.S. aircraft... to establish a protective cover over... to prevent rebel aircraft from taking off.... U.S. aircraft did not fire." Also "dispatched a company of U.S. Marines to reinforce Marine guards at our Embassy."

US Casualties Reported


Details: "There were no U.S. casualties"

Non-US Casualties Reported