December 10, 1992
AdministrationGeorge H.W. Bush
Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)
No, as stated in report
Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)
Yes, described in/inferred from report
Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)
No, as described in/inferred from report
Details: "multilateral response"; "Over 15 nations have already offered to deploy troops"
Article 51 Report to UN
Not applicable because no self-defense claim
Details: "[T]o address a major humanitarian calamity, avert related threats to international peace and security, and protect the safety of Americans and others engaged in relief operations"
Domestic Legal AuthorityConstitution (Art. II)
Details: "I have taken these actions pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct our foreign relations and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive, and in accordance with applicable treaties and laws. In doing so, I have taken into account the views expressed in H. Con. Res. 370, S. Con. Res. 132, and the Horn of Africa Recovery and Food Security Act, Public Law 102 - 274, on the urgent need for action in Somalia."
Claimed International Legal BasisUN Security Council authorization
Details: UNSCR 794 "which determined that the situation in Somalia constituted a threat to international peace and security, and, invoking Chapter VII of the U.N. Charter, authorized Member States to use all necessary means to establish a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia"
Mission-bound but indeterminate
Details: "U.S. Armed Forces will remain in Somalia only as long as necessary to establish a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations and will then turn over the responsibility of maintaining this environment to a U.N. peacekeeping force assigned to Somalia...we believe that prolonged operations will not be necessary."
Type of Enemy or MissionOther
Details: Humanitarian relief
Military ActivityUse of ground forces
Details: "U.S. Armed Forces entered Somalia to secure the airfield and port facility of Mogadishu. Other elements of the U.S. Armed Forces and the Armed Forces of other Members of the United Nations are being introduced into Somalia..."
US Casualties Reported
Non-US Casualties Reported