March 01, 1995
AdministrationBill Clinton (First Term)
Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)
No, as stated in report
Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)
Yes, stated or used terms in statute
Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)
No, as described in/inferred from report
Details: "The withdrawal operation is a coalition effort consisting of forces from Italy, the United Kingdom, France, Pakistan, Malaysia, Bangladesh, and the United States."
Article 51 Report to UN
Not applicable because no self-defense claim
Details: "to assist in the withdrawal of U.N. forces assigned to the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II)"; "as part of the U.S. long-standing commitment to UN humanitarian efforts in Somalia"
Domestic Legal AuthorityConstitution (Art. II)
Details: "I have taken this action pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct U.S. foreign relations and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive."
Claimed International Legal BasisUN Security Council authorization
Details: UNSCR 794
Mission-bound but indeterminate
Details: "It is my intention that this will be an operation of short duration whose only purpose is to assist in the withdrawal of UNOSOM II forces."
Type of Enemy or MissionOther
Details: Humanitarian relief
Military ActivityUse of naval forces/vessels Use of ground forces
Details: "combat-equipped U.S. Armed Forces personnel began deployment into Mogadishu, Somalia, to assist in the withdrawal of U.N. forces assigned to the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II);" "The U.S. forces include the USS Essex Amphibious Readiness Group, the USS Belleau Wood, the Special Marine Air-to-Ground Task Force, and Special Operations forces including four AC–130 gunships"
US Casualties Reported
Non-US Casualties Reported