Report 19960411A


April 11, 1996


Bill Clinton (First Term)


Liberia Sierra Leone Senegal

Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

Yes, stated or used terms in statute

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

Insufficient information to infer from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Article 51 Report to UN

Not applicable because no self-defense claim



Details: Evacuate "private U.S. citizens and certain third-country nationals who have taken refuge in the U.S. Embassy compound wishing to leave" Liberia; "to reinforce and assist the American Embassy"

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I have taken this action pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct the foreign relations of the United States and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive."

Claimed International Legal Basis


Estimated Scope/Duration

Mission-bound but indeterminate

Details: "I therefore expect that this operation will be of limited duration."

Type of Enemy or Mission

Embassy protection Rescue/Evacuation of nationals

Details: "factions led by Charles Taylor and Roosevelt Johnson involved in the civil war" and "groups of angry civilians" in Liberia

Military Activity

Air operations Use of naval forces/vessels Use of ground forces

Details: Operation Assured Response, involving approximately 140 military personnel, is "using MH–53 helicopters staged from Freetown, Sierra Leone" with a "small number of U.S. military aircraft" supporting from Senegal; Deployment "of U.S. Navy amphibious forces to the region to transport evacuees, if required."

US Casualties Reported


Details: "A number of our helicopters have been fired upon, but have not been hit."

Non-US Casualties Reported