April 11, 1996
AdministrationBill Clinton (First Term)
LocationLiberia Sierra Leone Senegal
Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)
Yes, described in/inferred from report
Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)
Yes, stated or used terms in statute
Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)
Insufficient information to infer from report
Article 51 Report to UN
Not applicable because no self-defense claim
Details: Evacuate "private U.S. citizens and certain third-country nationals who have taken refuge in the U.S. Embassy compound wishing to leave" Liberia; "to reinforce and assist the American Embassy"
Domestic Legal AuthorityConstitution (Art. II)
Details: "I have taken this action pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct the foreign relations of the United States and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive."
Claimed International Legal BasisUnknown
Mission-bound but indeterminate
Details: "I therefore expect that this operation will be of limited duration."
Type of Enemy or MissionEmbassy protection Rescue/Evacuation of nationals
Details: "factions led by Charles Taylor and Roosevelt Johnson involved in the civil war" and "groups of angry civilians" in Liberia
Military ActivityAir operations Use of naval forces/vessels Use of ground forces
Details: Operation Assured Response, involving approximately 140 military personnel, is "using MH–53 helicopters staged from Freetown, Sierra Leone" with a "small number of U.S. military aircraft" supporting from Senegal; Deployment "of U.S. Navy amphibious forces to the region to transport evacuees, if required."
US Casualties Reported
Details: "A number of our helicopters have been fired upon, but have not been hit."
Non-US Casualties Reported