Report 19960520A


May 20, 1996


Bill Clinton (First Term)



Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Article 51 Report to UN

Not applicable because no self-defense claim



Details: Evacuate U.S. citizens and third-country nationals from Monrovia

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I have directed the continued deployment of U.S. forces to Liberia pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct the foreign relations of the United States and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive."

Claimed International Legal Basis


Estimated Scope/Duration

Mission-bound but indeterminate

Details: "Our goal is to redeploy U.S. forces once there is no longer a need for enhanced security at the Embassy and a requirement to maintain an on-scene evacuation capability."

Type of Enemy or Mission

Embassy protection

Details: Unrest in "strife-torn city" of Monrovia, Liberia

Military Activity

Use of ground forces

Details: "Approximately 280 Marines and other U.S. military personnel from the total U.S. force of 2,500 are currently ashore at the American Embassy complex."; "Marines returned fire" in response to several attacks at the Embassy

US Casualties Reported


Details: Two U.S. Marines grazed by rounds

Non-US Casualties Reported


Details: At least four fatalities (Marines returned fire "killing two or more attackers. ... The Marines again returned fire, this time killing two or more attackers.")