May 23, 1996
AdministrationBill Clinton (First Term)
LocationCentral African Republic
Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)
No, as stated in report
Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)
Yes, described in/inferred from report
Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)
No, as described in/inferred from report
Article 51 Report to UN
Not applicable because no self-defense claim
Details: Evacuate private U.S. citizens and certain U.S. government employees; "to defend American lives and property"
Domestic Legal AuthorityConstitution (Art. II)
Details: "I have taken this action pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct the foreign relations of the United States and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive."
Claimed International Legal BasisUnknown
Mission-bound but indeterminate
Details: "U.S. forces will redeploy as soon as evacuation operations are complete and enhanced security at the American Embassy is no longer required."
Type of Enemy or MissionEmbassy protection
Details: "heavy fighting... between government forces and mutinous troops in the capital city of Bangui, Central African Republic."
Military ActivityAir operations Use of ground forces
Details: "Approximately 32 U.S. Marines... took up positions in and around the American Embassy compound" and "deployed to the international airport in order to assist in processing evacuees"; "Evacuation operations" involve "a U.S. KC–130 cargo aircraft operating into Yaounde, Cameroon."
US Casualties Reported
Non-US Casualties Reported