Report 19970315A


March 15, 1997


Bill Clinton (Second Term)



Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

Yes, stated or used terms in statute

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Article 51 Report to UN

Not applicable because no self-defense claim



Details: "to provide enhanced security for the American Embassy in Tirana and to conduct the evacuation of certain U.S. Government employees and private U.S. citizens"

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I have taken this action pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct U.S. foreign relations and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive."

Claimed International Legal Basis


Estimated Scope/Duration

Scope/duration specified

Details: "Evacuation efforts resumed on March 14 and are expected to continue for several days."

Type of Enemy or Mission

Embassy protection Rescue/Evacuation of nationals

Details: Embassy security and evacuation

Military Activity

Air operations Use of naval forces/vessels Use of ground forces

Details: "Approximately 25 U.S. Marines... took up positions in and around the American Embassy compound. Evacuation operations began concurrently as U.S. CH–46 helicopters operating from the USS Nassau amphibious ready group transported approximately 50 U.S. citizens to U.S. Navy ships at sea"; rescue helicopters "escorted by AH–1W Cobra helicopters... came under fire but were not damaged during separate, sporadic incidents"; "a 150-member Marine rifle company has also been inserted near the American Embassy to provide additional security for the evacuation"

US Casualties Reported


Non-US Casualties Reported