Report 19980821A


August 21, 1998


Bill Clinton (Second Term)


Afghanistan Sudan (Pre-Separation)

Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Article 51 Report to UN


Details: S/1998/780


Respond to threat

Details: Respond to threat by "the Usama bin Ladin organization"

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I directed these actions pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct U.S. foreign relations and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive."

Claimed International Legal Basis


Details: "The United States acted in exercise of our inherent right of self-defense consistent with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter. These strikes were a necessary and proportionate response to the imminent threat of further terrorist attacks against U.S. personnel and facilities."

Estimated Scope/Duration

Scope/duration specified

Details: "The U.S. forces involved in these strikes have completed their mission."

Type of Enemy or Mission

Non-state actor

Details: "the Usama bin Ladin organization"

Military Activity

Air operations

Details: "U.S. forces conducted strikes in Afghanistan against a series of camps and installations used by the Usama bin Ladin organization, and in Sudan where the bin Ladin organization has facilities and extensive ties to the government"; U.S. forces "struck a facility in Sudan being used to produce materials for chemical weapons" and "facilities in Afghanistan that are being used for terrorist training and as basing and supply camps for staging terrorist activities."

US Casualties Reported


Details: "No U.S. personnel were injured or killed in connection with this action."

Non-US Casualties Reported