Report 20230423A


April 23, 2023


Joe Biden (Current Term)


Djibouti Ethiopia Sudan

Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Article 51 Report to UN

Not applicable because no self-defense claim



Details: "At my direction, United States Armed Forces personnel have conducted an operation to evacuate United States personnel and others from Khartoum, Sudan, in response to the deteriorating security situation in Sudan."

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I directed this action consistent with my responsibility to protect United States citizens both at home and abroad and in furtherance of United States national security and foreign policy interests, pursuant to my constitutional authority as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive and to conduct United States foreign relations."

Claimed International Legal Basis


Estimated Scope/Duration

Mission-bound but indeterminate

Details: "United States Armed Forces personnel will remain deployed in Djibouti to protect United States personnel and others until the security situation no longer requires their presence, and additional forces are prepared to deploy to the region if required."

Type of Enemy or Mission

Rescue/Evacuation of nationals

Details: "deteriorating security situation in Sudan"

Military Activity


Details: "To conduct and support this operation, United States Armed Forces personnel with appropriate combat equipment deployed to Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Sudan."

US Casualties Reported


Non-US Casualties Reported