Report 20240112A


January 12, 2024


Joe Biden (Current Term)



Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Details: "as part of a multinational operation alongside the United Kingdom, with support from Australia, Bahrain, Canada, and the Netherlands"

Article 51 Report to UN


Details: S/2024/56


Respond to threat

Details: "The strikes were taken to deter and degrade Houthi capacity to conduct future attacks... I directed the strikes in order to protect and defend our personnel and assets, to degrade and disrupt the ability of the Houthi militants to carry out future attacks against the United States and against vessels operating in the Red Sea region, and to deter the Houthi militants from conducting or supporting further attacks that could further destabilize the region and threaten United States strategic interests."

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I directed this military action consistent with my responsibility to protect United States citizens both at home and abroad and in furtherance of United States national security and foreign policy interests, pursuant to my constitutional authority as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive and to conduct United States foreign relations."

Claimed International Legal Basis


Details: "The United States took this necessary and proportionate action consistent with international law, and in the exercise of the United States’ inherent right of self-defense as reflected in Article 51 of the United Nations Charter."

Estimated Scope/Duration

Scope/duration specified

Details: "On January 11, 2024, at my direction, United States forces as part of a multinational operation ... conducted discrete strikes"

Type of Enemy or Mission

Non-state actor

Details: "Yemen-based Houthi militants"

Military Activity

Air operations

Details: "discrete strikes against facilities in Yemen that facilitate Houthi militants’ attacks in the Red Sea region. These facilities include air and coastal surveillance radar sites, unmanned aerial system launch facilities and launch sites, and cruise and ballistic missile facilities and launch sites."

US Casualties Reported


Non-US Casualties Reported