August 09, 1990
AdministrationGeorge H.W. Bush
LocationSaudi Arabia Iraq
Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)
No, as stated in report
Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)
Yes, stated or used terms in statute
Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)
No, as described in/inferred from report
Details: "in concert with Saudi forces, friendly regional forces, and others"
Article 51 Report to UN
Purpose/MissionRespond to threat
Details: Respond to "direct threat to neighboring countries and to vital U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf region" by Iraq; "They are prepared to take action in concert with Saudi forces, friendly regional forces, and others to deter Iraqi aggression and to preserve the integrity of Saudi Arabia."
Domestic Legal AuthorityConstitution (Art. II)
Details: "I have taken these actions pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct our foreign relations and as Commander in Chief."
Claimed International Legal BasisSelf-Defense
Details: "These actions are in exercise of our inherent right of individual and collective self-defense."
Mission-bound but indeterminate
Details: "Although it is not possible to predict the precise scope and duration of this deployment, our Armed Forces will remain so long as their presence is required to contribute to the security of the region and desired by the Saudi government..."
Type of Enemy or MissionNation-state
Military ActivityAir operations Use of naval forces/vessels Use of ground forces
Details: "I ordered the forward deployment of substantial elements of the United States Armed Forces into the region.... Two squadrons of F - 15 aircraft, one brigade of the 82nd Airborne Division, and other elements of the Armed Forces began arriving in Saudi Arabia... Additional U.S. air, naval, and ground Forces also will be deployed."
US Casualties Reported
Non-US Casualties Reported