Report 19910118A


January 18, 1991


George H.W. Bush


Iraq Kuwait

Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Details: "Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Canada"

Article 51 Report to UN

Not applicable because no self-defense claim


Respond to threat

Details: "[C]ompel Iraq to withdraw unconditionally from Kuwait and meet the other requirements of the U.N. Security Council and the world community"

Domestic Legal Authority

Const. (Art. II) and Statute

Details: “Consistent with the War Powers Resolution, I now inform you that pursuant to my authority as Commander in Chief" and as "contemplated by ... H.J. Res. 77, adopted by Congress on January 12, 1991"

Claimed International Legal Basis

UN Security Council authorization

Details: "The operations of U.S. and other coalition forces are contemplated by the resolutions of the U.N. Security Council"

Estimated Scope/Duration

Mission-bound but indeterminate

Details: "it is impossible to know at this time either the duration of active combat operations or the scope or duration of the deployment of U.S. Armed Forces necessary fully to accomplish our goals"

Type of Enemy or Mission


Details: Iraq

Military Activity


Details: "combat operations"; "military actions are being conducted with great intensity

US Casualties Reported


Non-US Casualties Reported