April 13, 1993
AdministrationBill Clinton (First Term)
LocationBosnia and Herzegovina
Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)
Yes, described in/inferred from report
Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)
Yes, stated or used terms in statute
Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)
Insufficient information to infer from report
Article 51 Report to UN
Not applicable because no self-defense claim
Details: Enforce UN-authorized no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina
Domestic Legal AuthorityConstitution (Art. II)
Details: "I have directed U.S. armed forces to participate in these operations pursuant to my constitutional authority as Commander in Chief."
Claimed International Legal BasisUN Security Council authorization
Details: UNSCR 816 of March 31, 1993, which extended flight ban "to all unauthorized flights over Bosnia-Herzegovina and to authorize Member States, acting nationally or through regional organizations, to take all necessary measures to ensure compliance"
Mission-bound but indeterminate
Details: "It is not possible to predict at this time how long such operations will be necessary."
Type of Enemy or MissionNation-state
Details: Former Yugoslavia
Military ActivityAir operations
Details: Enforce "no-fly zone" over Bosnia-Herzegovina using "13 F–15 and 12 F–18A fighter aircraft and supporting tanker aircraft"; "Unauthorized aircraft entering or approaching the no-fly zone will be identified, interrogated, intercepted, escorted/monitored, and turned away (in that order). If these steps do not result in compliance with the no-fly zone, such aircraft may be engaged... although we do not expect such action will be necessary."
US Casualties Reported
Details: Subsequently reported on 2/17/1994: "Our enforcement operations have been conducted safely with no casualties to date."
Non-US Casualties Reported