Report 19930413A


April 13, 1993


Bill Clinton (First Term)


Bosnia and Herzegovina

Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

Yes, stated or used terms in statute

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

Insufficient information to infer from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Details: NATO

Article 51 Report to UN

Not applicable because no self-defense claim



Details: Enforce UN-authorized no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I have directed U.S. armed forces to participate in these operations pursuant to my constitutional authority as Commander in Chief."

Claimed International Legal Basis

UN Security Council authorization

Details: UNSCR 816 of March 31, 1993, which extended flight ban "to all unauthorized flights over Bosnia-Herzegovina and to authorize Member States, acting nationally or through regional organizations, to take all necessary measures to ensure compliance"

Estimated Scope/Duration

Mission-bound but indeterminate

Details: "It is not possible to predict at this time how long such operations will be necessary."

Type of Enemy or Mission


Details: Former Yugoslavia

Military Activity

Air operations

Details: Enforce "no-fly zone" over Bosnia-Herzegovina using "13 F–15 and 12 F–18A fighter aircraft and supporting tanker aircraft"; "Unauthorized aircraft entering or approaching the no-fly zone will be identified, interrogated, intercepted, escorted/monitored, and turned away (in that order). If these steps do not result in compliance with the no-fly zone, such aircraft may be engaged... although we do not expect such action will be necessary."

US Casualties Reported


Details: Subsequently reported on 2/17/1994: "Our enforcement operations have been conducted safely with no casualties to date."

Non-US Casualties Reported