April 07, 1999
AdministrationBill Clinton (Second Term)
LocationAlbania Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)
No, as described in/inferred from report
Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)
Yes, stated or used terms in statute
Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)
Yes, described in/inferred from report
Article 51 Report to UN
Not applicable because no self-defense claim
Details: "to support humanitarian disaster relief operations for the Kosovar refugees"; "Separate from this effort...to provide a deep strike task force to enhance NATO’s ability to conduct effective air operations in the FRY"
Domestic Legal AuthorityConstitution (Art. II)
Details: "I have taken these actions pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct U.S. foreign relations and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive. In doing so, I have taken into account the views and support expressed by the Congress in S. Con. Res. 21 and H. Con. Res. 42."
Claimed International Legal BasisUnknown
Mission-bound but indeterminate
Details: "...it is not possible to predict how long either of these operations will continue. The duration of the deployments depend upon the course of events in Kosovo, and in particular, on Belgrade’s conduct with respect to its campaign of ethnic cleansing and the duration of the threat posed to peace and security"
Type of Enemy or MissionNation-state
Details: FRY Government of President Milosevic
Military ActivityAir operations Use of ground forces
Details: "[R]elief efforts [for Kosovar refugees] will include delivering food and supplies, constructing shelters, providing coordination and assisting in logistics movement of displaced persons and relief supplies, and when necessary, providing protection"; Albania deployment "consist[s] of rotary wing aircraft, artillery, and tactical missile systems and will be stationed in Albania to provide a deep strike task force to enhance NATO’s ability to conduct effective air operations in the FRY. Approximately 2,500 soldiers and aviators will deploy as part of this task force."
US Casualties Reported
Non-US Casualties Reported