Report 19990407A


April 07, 1999


Bill Clinton (Second Term)


Albania Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

Yes, stated or used terms in statute

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Details: NATO

Article 51 Report to UN

Not applicable because no self-defense claim



Details: "to support humanitarian disaster relief operations for the Kosovar refugees"; "Separate from this provide a deep strike task force to enhance NATO’s ability to conduct effective air operations in the FRY"

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I have taken these actions pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct U.S. foreign relations and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive. In doing so, I have taken into account the views and support expressed by the Congress in S. Con. Res. 21 and H. Con. Res. 42."

Claimed International Legal Basis


Estimated Scope/Duration

Mission-bound but indeterminate

Details: " is not possible to predict how long either of these operations will continue. The duration of the deployments depend upon the course of events in Kosovo, and in particular, on Belgrade’s conduct with respect to its campaign of ethnic cleansing and the duration of the threat posed to peace and security"

Type of Enemy or Mission


Details: FRY Government of President Milosevic

Military Activity

Air operations Use of ground forces

Details: "[R]elief efforts [for Kosovar refugees] will include delivering food and supplies, constructing shelters, providing coordination and assisting in logistics movement of displaced persons and relief supplies, and when necessary, providing protection"; Albania deployment "consist[s] of rotary wing aircraft, artillery, and tactical missile systems and will be stationed in Albania to provide a deep strike task force to enhance NATO’s ability to conduct effective air operations in the FRY. Approximately 2,500 soldiers and aviators will deploy as part of this task force."

US Casualties Reported


Non-US Casualties Reported