Report 20230325A


March 25, 2023


Joe Biden (Current Term)



Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Article 51 Report to UN


Details: S/2023/227


Respond to threat

Details: "in order to protect and defend the safety of our personnel, to degrade and disrupt the ongoing series of attacks against the United States and our partners, and to deter the Islamic Republic of Iran and Iran-backed militia groups from conducting or supporting further attacks on United States personnel and facilities."

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I directed this discrete military action consistent with my responsibility to protect United States citizens both at home and abroad and in furtherance of United States national security and foreign policy interests, pursuant to my constitutional authority as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive and to conduct United States foreign relations."

Claimed International Legal Basis


Details: "The United States took this necessary and proportionate action consistent with international law, and in the exercise of the United States’ inherent right of self-defense as reflected in Article 51 of the United Nations Charter."

Estimated Scope/Duration

Scope/duration specified

Details: "on March 23, 2023, United States forces conducted targeted strikes"

Type of Enemy or Mission

Non-state actor

Details: "militia groups affiliated with Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC)"

Military Activity

Air operations

Details: "United States forces conducted targeted strikes against facilities in eastern Syria in response to this series of attacks and continuing threats of future attacks"

US Casualties Reported


Details: "On March 23, 2023, a one-way unmanned aerial system attack tragically killed one American contractor supporting the United States military, and wounded six others, including five United States service members."

Non-US Casualties Reported


Details: "they were conducted in a manner intended to establish deterrence, limit the risk of escalation, and avoid civilian casualties"