Report 19951221A


December 21, 1995


Bill Clinton (First Term)


Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Hungary Italy

Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Details: "All of our NATO allies are contributing forces as well (except for Iceland, which has no military). Non-NATO nations whose offers to provide forces to IFOR are under consideration include Austria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and Ukraine."

Article 51 Report to UN

Not applicable because no self-defense claim



Details: "The IFOR’s mission... is to monitor and help ensure compliance by all parties with the military aspects of the peace agreement."

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I have directed the participation of U.S. forces pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct the foreign relations of the United States and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive."

Claimed International Legal Basis

UN Security Council authorization

Details: UNSCR 1031

Estimated Scope/Duration

Scope/duration specified

Details: "NATO and U.S. military commanders believe, and I expect, that the military mission can be accomplished in about a year."

Type of Enemy or Mission


Details: Monitor compliance with peace agreement

Military Activity

Air operations Use of naval forces/vessels Use of ground forces

Details: To participate in IFOR, "approximately 20,000 U.S. military personnel" will deploy to Bosnia and Herzegovina with approximately 5,000 more to "other states of the former Yugoslavia"; Also, "approximately 7,000 U.S. support forces, under U.S. command and control... will deploy in Hungary, Croatia, Italy, and other states in the region in support of IFOR"; "participating U.S. forces include ... naval and air forces"

US Casualties Reported


Details: Reported on Dec. 20, 1996: "During IFOR’s one-year mission, U.S. forces sustained a total of 13 fatalities, all resulting from accidents. Twenty-one American servicemembers were also injured in accidents."

Non-US Casualties Reported