Report 19990326A


March 26, 1999


Bill Clinton (Second Term)


Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)

Yes, described in/inferred from report

Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)

Yes, stated or used terms in statute

Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)

No, as described in/inferred from report

Joint/Coalition Mission


Details: NATO

Article 51 Report to UN

Not applicable because no self-defense claim



Details: Respond to "continued campaign of violence and repression against the ethnic Albanian population in Kosovo"; Protect US citizens/embassy security in Skopje, Macedonia

Domestic Legal Authority

Constitution (Art. II)

Details: "I have taken these actions pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct U.S. foreign relations and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive. In doing so, I have taken into account the views and support expressed by the Congress in S. Con. Res. 21 and H. Con. Res. 42."

Claimed International Legal Basis


Details: "The Security Council has condemned FRY actions as a threat to regional peace and security."

Estimated Scope/Duration

Mission-bound but indeterminate

Details: Air strikes: "We cannot predict with certainty how long these operations will need to continue." Marine deployment: "These Marines will remain deployed so long as is necessary to protect our embassy and U.S. persons."

Type of Enemy or Mission


Details: FRY Government of President Milosevic

Military Activity

Air operations Use of naval forces/vessels Use of ground forces

Details: Air strikes: "United States and NATO forces have targeted the FRY government’s integrated air defense system, military and security police command and control elements, and military and security police facilities and infrastructure." Marine deployment of "a unit consisting of about 100 combat-equipped Marines from USS NASSAU (LHA4)... to Skopje to enhance security at our embassy."

US Casualties Reported


Non-US Casualties Reported