March 26, 1999
AdministrationBill Clinton (Second Term)
LocationFederal Republic of Yugoslavia Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Was 4(a)(1) Triggered? (Hostilities/Imminent Hostilities)
Yes, described in/inferred from report
Was 4(a)(2) Triggered? (Combat- Equipped Introduction)
Yes, stated or used terms in statute
Was 4(a)(3) Triggered? (Substantial Enlargement)
No, as described in/inferred from report
Article 51 Report to UN
Not applicable because no self-defense claim
Details: Respond to "continued campaign of violence and repression against the ethnic Albanian population in Kosovo"; Protect US citizens/embassy security in Skopje, Macedonia
Domestic Legal AuthorityConstitution (Art. II)
Details: "I have taken these actions pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct U.S. foreign relations and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive. In doing so, I have taken into account the views and support expressed by the Congress in S. Con. Res. 21 and H. Con. Res. 42."
Claimed International Legal BasisUnknown
Details: "The Security Council has condemned FRY actions as a threat to regional peace and security."
Mission-bound but indeterminate
Details: Air strikes: "We cannot predict with certainty how long these operations will need to continue." Marine deployment: "These Marines will remain deployed so long as is necessary to protect our embassy and U.S. persons."
Type of Enemy or MissionNation-state
Details: FRY Government of President Milosevic
Military ActivityAir operations Use of naval forces/vessels Use of ground forces
Details: Air strikes: "United States and NATO forces have targeted the FRY government’s integrated air defense system, military and security police command and control elements, and military and security police facilities and infrastructure." Marine deployment of "a unit consisting of about 100 combat-equipped Marines from USS NASSAU (LHA4)... to Skopje to enhance security at our embassy."
US Casualties Reported
Non-US Casualties Reported